Most of the great powers (and some smaller ones such as Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark) engaged in imperialism and built their overseas empires mainly in Africa and Asia. Although there have been many riots, historians have few wars, And they were small: two Anglo-Boer wars (1880-1881 and 1899-1902), the Franco-Japanese War (1894-1895), the First Italo-Ethiopian War (1895-1896), the Spanish-American War (1898) and the Ottoman War (1911). The greatest was the Russo-Japanese War of 1905, the only one in which two great powers fought against each other.  China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States are often referred to as great powers by academics because of their “political and economic dominance on the world stage.”  These five nations are the only states with permanent veto seats on the UN Security Council. They are also the only government agencies to have met the conditions that must be considered “nuclear-weapon States” under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and to maintain military spending, which is among the largest in the world.  However, there is no consensus among the authorities on the current state of these powers or on what a great power defines precisely. For example, sources have sometimes called China France Russia and the United Kingdom as middle powers. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, its permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council was transferred to the Russian Federation in 1991. The newly created Russian Federation was born at the level of a great power, leaving the United States as the only remaining world superpower [nb 2] (although some support a multipolar vision of the world). While some nations are widely regarded as great powers, there is no definitive list of them. Sometimes the status of the great powers is officially recognized in conferences such as the Vienna Congress  or the United Nations Security Council.
   As a result, the status of the great powers has also been formally and informally recognized in forums such as the Group of Seven (G7).     In addition to the great contemporary powers mentioned above, Zbigniew Brzezinski and Mohan Malik also regard India as a great power.  Although, unlike the great contemporary powers, which have long been regarded as such, the recognition of India as a great power is relatively new among the authorities.  However, there is no collective agreement on the status of India among observers, for example some academics believe that India is becoming a great power, while some believe that India remains a middle power.    The term “great power” was first used to represent the major powers in Europe during the post-Napoleon era. The “great powers” formed the “concert of Europe” and claimed the right to the joint application of post-war treaties.  The formalization of the division between the small powers and the great powers took place with the signing of the Treaty of Chaumont in 1814. Since then, the international balance of power has shifted many times, the most dramatic during the First and Second World War. In literature, alternative concepts for great power are often a world power  or a great power.
 In a largely peaceful transition, the Ottoman provinces of Moldova and Wallachia slowly interrupted, gained effective autonomy in 1859 and officially became an independent nation in 1878. Both provinces have long been under Ottoman control, but Russia and Austria wanted them too, making the region a place of conflict in the 19th century.